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Modern commercial enterprise logistics commodity packaging

section 4 commodity transportation packaging techniques

commodity transportation packaging techniques refer to the techniques and methods used in the process of packaging operations. Only through packaging techniques can the transportation package and sales package form an organic whole

I. packaging techniques for different forms of products

this is the technology and method that most products need to consider, so it is called general packaging techniques. It usually includes the following items:

(I) reasonable placement, fixation and reinforcement of the contents

it requires certain skills to put products of different shapes into the transportation package. Only by reasonably placing, fixing and reinforcement of the products can we achieve the purpose of reducing volume, saving materials and reducing losses. For example, for products with regular shape, pay attention to suits; For weak parts, pay attention to reinforcement; The weight in the package should be stolen; Pay attention to isolation and fixation between products

(II) compress the volume of foam products

for some foam products, the volume of the container occupied during packaging is too large, which correspondingly occupies more transportation space and storage space, increasing the transportation and storage costs, so the volume of foam products should be compressed. Vacuum packaging technology is generally used

(III) reasonable selection of shape and size of outer packaging

some commodity transportation packages also need to be loaded into containers, which leads to the problem of size matching between packages and containers. If it is well matched, there will be no gap when packing, the container capacity can be effectively used, and the goods can be effectively protected. The reasonable matching of packaging size mainly refers to the size of the bottom of the container, such as using an electric soldering iron to close the suspicious part (note that the temperature must not be raised too high to damage the normal device) to see whether the failure is the matching, that is, the packaging module series should be used. As for the choice of the height of the outer packaging, it should be determined by the characteristics of the goods. Loose foam goods can be higher, and heavy goods can be lower. Packages can only be placed horizontally in containers, not vertically or laterally. In the selection of the shape and size of the outer packaging, attention should be paid to avoid over high, over flat, over large and over heavy packaging. Too high packaging will make the center of gravity unstable and difficult to stack; Too flat packaging makes it difficult to brush words and identify signs; Too much packaging, difficult to sell, and large volume also brings difficulties to circulation; The cartons are easy to be damaged if they are packed too heavy

(IV) reasonable selection of the shape and size of the inner packaging. When selecting the shape and size of the inner packaging, it should match the shape and size of the outer packaging, that is, the bottom size of the inner packaging must be coordinated with the packaging modulus. Of course, the inner packaging is mainly used as sales packaging, and the more important consideration is to facilitate the sales of goods and the display, loading, purchase and carrying of goods

(V) bundling outside the package

bundling outside the package plays an important role in packaging, and sometimes plays a key role. The direct purpose of bundling is to bind a single object or several objects tightly for transportation, storage and loading and unloading. In addition, bundling can prevent theft and protect the contents, compress the volume and reduce storage and transportation costs, and strengthen the container. Generally, reasonable bundling can increase the strength of the container by%. There are many methods of bundling. Generally, different methods such as well shaped, cross shaped, double cross and parallel bundling are adopted according to different conditions such as packaging form, transportation mode, container strength and internal weight. For ordinary packaging with small volume, the bundling is generally carried out on the packer, while for collective packaging, the ordinary bundling method is laborious and laborious, and the shrink film packaging technology and stretch film packaging technology are generally used

shrink film packaging technology is to wrap the packaged objects with shrink film, and then heat the wrapped objects appropriately, so that the film shrinks and clings to the objects, so that the packaged special parts are fixed as a whole. Shrink film is a kind of polyethylene film that has been specially stretched and cold treated. When the film is heated again, its horizontal and vertical shrinkage will be sharp, and the film thickness will increase, and the shrinkage rate can reach%

stretch film packaging technology is a new packaging technology that began to be used in the 1970s. It relies on mechanical devices to stretch and wrap the elastic film around the package at room temperature, and finally seal at its end. The elasticity of the film also makes the containerized objects firmly fixed together. Stretching sea film does not need heating, and the energy consumed is only 1/20 of that of shrink film packaging technology

II. Packaging techniques adopted for different physical properties of products

this is a packaging technique and method adopted for the special needs of products. Due to different product characteristics, affected by various internal and external factors in the circulation process, its physical properties will change unnecessarily, or deteriorate, some are affected by moisture, and some are damaged by vibration and impact. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt some special technologies and methods to protect the product rabbit from the effects of various factors in the circulation environment. Therefore, such techniques and methods are also called special packaging techniques. It covers a wide range, including buffer, fresh-keeping, moisture-proof, rust prevention, deoxidation, aeration, sterilization, etc

(I) anti vibration and buffer packaging

anti vibration and buffer packaging is to properly place buffer materials between the inner contents and the packaging container to reduce impact and vibration and protect the inner contents from damage. Commonly used cushioning packaging materials include foamed plastic, wood wool, spring, etc. Foaming packaging is a relatively new method of cushioning packaging. It directly injects the raw materials that can produce plastic foam into the gap between the inner package and the packaging container through a special foaming equipment. After about dozens of seconds, it causes a chemical reaction and performs double foaming to form a foam body that tightly wraps the inner package. It is most suitable for some commodities with complex shape or small batch

(II) moisture proof packaging

moisture proof packaging is a packaging that takes certain anti expansion measures to prevent moisture from invading the packaging and affecting the quality of the contents. Moisture proof packaging design is to prevent the passage of water vapor, or reduce the passage of water vapor to a minimum. Packaging materials with a certain thickness and density can block the penetration of water vapor, among which metal and glass have the best barrier and better moisture-proof performance; The paperboard has a loose structure and poor barrier property, but if moisture-proof materials are slowly laid on the surface, it will have a certain moisture-proof property. The plastic film has a certain moisture-proof property, but it is mostly composed of seamless, uniform and continuous holes, which diffuse in the pores, resulting in its moisture permeability. The moisture permeability is related to plastic materials, especially the differences in processing technology, density and thickness. In order to improve the moisture-proof performance of packaging, methods such as market coating, oil coating, wax coating and plastic coating can be used. Coating method is to apply various coatings on the inner wall and outer surface of the container, such as resin coating in cloth bags and plastic woven bags, asphalt coating in paper bags and other oiling methods, such as enhancing the moisture-proof ability of corrugated board, and coating its surface with varnish, varnish or shellac paint; Waxing method, that is, waxing on the surface of corrugated board or waxing in the corrugated core; Plastic coating method, that is, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) is coated on the carton. There are also desiccants (such as silica gel, zeolite, aluminum gel) in the packaging container. In addition, the packages that are susceptible to moisture and oil penetration are lined with one or more layers of moisture-proof materials (such as kraft paper, tarpaulin, envelope paper, waxed paper, grease proof paper, aluminum foil and plastic film), or the goods are directly wrapped with one or more layers of moisture-proof materials. The above methods can be used alone or in combination with several methods

(III) mold proof packaging

mold proof packaging is a packaging that takes certain protective measures to prevent packaging and contents from mildew. In addition to moisture-proof measures, it also needs to carry out mold proof treatment on packaging materials. Mold proof packaging must improve the production and control the environmental conditions such as packaging and storage according to the physiological characteristics of microorganisms, so as to achieve the purpose of inhibiting the growth of mold. First of all, we should try to choose materials that are mold resistant and closely structured, such as aluminum foil, glass, high-density polyethylene plastic, polypropylene plastic, polyester, whose dielectric properties rank first among plastics; Plastic and its composite film, these materials have the properties that microorganisms are not easy to penetrate, and have good mildew resistance. Second, the container is required to be well sealed to make it more vulnerable, because sealed packaging is an important measure to prevent thundering. For example, tightly sealed packaging such as blister, vacuum and inflation can not only prevent the invasion of external moisture into the packaging, but also inhibit the growth and reproduction of mold. Third, adopt the method of fungicide mildew prevention. You can add lightning protection agent when producing packaging materials, or dip and feed the packaging container with lightning protection agent and spray an appropriate amount of mildew prevention agent in the packaging container, such as using carbendazim (BCM), Bayinqing, salicylanilide, shibaojing, sodium pentachlorophenol, etc. for the mold prevention of paper and paper products, leather, cotton and linen fabrics, wood and other packaging materials. Fourth, gas phase lightning protection treatment can also be adopted, mainly including paraformaldehyde, nitrogen filled packaging and carbon dioxide filled packaging, which also has good results

(IV) antirust packaging

antirust packaging is a packaging that adopts certain protective measures to prevent metal products from rusting. Antirust packaging can be treated on the metal surface. For example, metal plating (including zinc plating, tin plating, chromium plating, etc.) can not only prevent the surface of steel products from contacting the atmosphere, but also protect the surface of steel products from corrosion during electrochemical action; Chemical protection methods of oxidation treatment (commonly known as bluing) and phosphating treatment (commonly known as blackening) can also be used; Methods such as oil removal and rust prevention, painting and vapor phase rust prevention can also be adopted. For example, hardware products can be coated with a layer of rust prevention oil on their surface and then sealed with plastic film. Xu paint treatment is to apply different paints to steel sheet barrels and some hardware products after mechanical treatment such as sandblasting. Vapor phase rust prevention is a method of using vapor phase corrosion inhibitor to prevent rust. At present, vapor phase rust prevention paper is used, that is, the inner packaging products coated with corrosion inhibitor, and the outer packaging is sealed with paraffin paper, metal foil, plastic bag or composite materials. If the packing space is too large; An appropriate amount of antirust paper or powder can be added. In addition, ordinary plastic bags, shrinkable or stretched plastic films, peelable plastics, cocoon type antirust packaging, sleeve type antirust packaging, nitrogen filling and dry air can also be used to prevent rust

(V) fresh keeping packaging

fresh keeping agent packaging is the use of solid fresh-keeping agents (composed of zeolite, bentonite, activated carbon, calcium hydroxide and other raw materials in a certain proportion) and liquid fresh-keeping agents (such as the fresh-keeping agent with coconut as the main body, sodium bicarbonate, peracetic acid solution, sulfite and acid calcium sulfite, Compound Lecithin and cm fresh-keeping agent extracted from Chinese herbal medicine) for the preservation of fruits and vegetables. The solid preservative method is to put the preservative into a breathable small bag, seal it, and then put it into the inner package to absorb the gas emitted by fresh fruits and vegetables and delay the post ripening process. The liquid preservative method is the dipping and coating liquid of fresh fruits, which is taken out after soaking, and an extremely thin edible fresh-keeping film is formed on the surface, which can not only block the respiratory pores on the surface of the peel, but also prevent the invasion of microorganisms, isolate temperature and retain water. The fresh-keeping packaging of silicon window transfer box is a fresh-keeping method of storing and transporting fresh fruits, vegetables and eggs by using a plastic sealed box covered with silicon air window. Silicon gas chamber, also known as artificial air window, opens air chamber on plastic box and bag, with good adjustment

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