Thoughts on the reform of design education with Ch

2022-08-11
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Thoughts on the reform of design education with Chinese characteristics

-- zhangfuchang (1995)

I. the urgency of the reform of design education

we are at the turn of the century, and in five years, mankind will enter the new twenty-firstcentury. Over the past half century, earth shaking changes have taken place in the world. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the world is developing towards multi polarization. The success of China's reform and the revitalization of developing countries have greatly changed the face of Asia and the world

today's world is in a historical period of great changes. Profound changes are taking place in social economy and politics. International competition is intensifying day by day. The high-tech revolution marked by microelectronics and electronic computers is changing with each passing day and developing rapidly. The highly differentiated and highly integrated disciplines are becoming increasingly obvious. The wave of industrial revolution has greatly changed the industrial structure of the world and the way and structure of human life. Over the past century, modern design has made historic contributions to the creation of new human civilization. Batches of new products have entered hundreds of millions of families, meeting people's material needs and improving people's quality of life

the large energy consuming industrial civilization characterized by "large, large and fast" for decades is turning to adapt to the direction of personal electrification, diversification, informatization, multi-function, energy saving, serialization, small batch and multi variety. The popularization and popularization of high technology has achieved remarkable results, and the wide application of electronic computers has shown infinite possibilities for design. Knowledge and products are aging rapidly. Now, the product cycle is getting shorter and shorter. According to statistics, 90% of the goods in American department stores were not available 20 or 30 years ago, and 90% of the goods will disappear in another 20 or 30 years. The production cycle of many products is only a few months or days; Some enterprises in the United States can change their production varieties in a few seconds to meet the competition and needs of the market

in today's world-wide commodity competition, technology and design have become the key to success or failure. In the case of no obvious difference in technology, quality, function and other conditions, design has become a decisive factor. The world is gradually developing from the direction that whoever controls the technology quality controls the market to the direction that whoever controls the design controls the market. The new product development of enterprises is also gradually changing from technology priority to design priority. For this reason, many developed countries have already included design as the core of technology intensive industries in national policies and become a secret weapon for national economic development. On the contrary, design has already become a popular profession in the larger developed countries. According to incomplete statistics, Japan, with a population of only 100million, trained nearly 200000 modern design talents after the war (excluding architectural and arts and crafts designers). There are more than 200 schools with design majors). There are 20000 students in schools, 15000 design offices, and an annual output value of 30million yen per capita. First class enterprises such as Panasonic, Hitachi, Toshiba and Toyota have hundreds of designers engaged in development. South Korea, with a population of only 40 million, has only 500 industrial designers in 79 years. Now there are 90 schools with design majors, and 13000 design students graduate every year. In addition, according to the statistics of 80 years, the number of designers per onemillion people is: 80 in the United States, 76 in Austria, 75 in Japan, 50 in South Korea and 50 in Finland. In recent years, Japan's economy is in recession, but design education is still developing, and new design universities and majors are still set up one after another). At the same time, new features have emerged, that is, not only the design majors in art, engineering and normal subjects as in the past, but also new design disciplines in home economics and humanities. At the same time, new design disciplines are built with disciplines such as life culture, human science and environmental information

in order to meet the challenges of the new century, countries all over the world are carrying out changes to varying degrees. Design education in Europe, America, Japan and other countries is also carrying out new reform and exploration: the merger of disciplines, cross cooperation, the reform of curriculum system; The transformation of disciplines is increasingly obvious. For example, the Engineering Department of Chiba University in Japan has decided to merge the famous industrial craftsmanship discipline, architecture discipline and portrait engineering discipline into the design engineering discipline, reducing disciplines to enhance the intersection between disciplines. At the same time, the Ministry of education, culture and sports of Japan decided to remove the Ministry of Education (i.e. the Department of basic courses) of various universities and merge them with other disciplines, greatly reducing the standard performance stable and lasting compulsory courses, and increasing students' elective courses in various majors and disciplines. Some countries also organize students of all majors to carry out teaching and scientific research work together with subject projects to meet the talent needs of the 21st century

the reform of design teaching in the world actually reflects the changes in the understanding, understanding and needs of the whole society for design. Designers are not only needed for product development of enterprises, but also for life, industry, society and other fields. These fields are not only engaged in shape, color and other modeling work, but play the role of creating new relationships between people, people and things, people and the environment, putting forward new assumptions to the society, and then solving practical problems

just as we are developing industrial design, the international community once again re understands the origin of design and re evaluates the merits and demerits of modern design. Reflecting on the side effects brought by modern design with the rapid development of large industry, such as the destruction of the environment, the decline of traditional culture, and the variation of traditional interpersonal relations, all kinds of modern social problems are related to the departure of design from the purpose of originating from life, serving life, creating the future, and benefiting mankind. Many designers do not hesitate to paint fake and shoddy products for the sake of economic interests. Therefore, it can be said that the current design is full of commercial utilitarianism and benign improvement, and there are few really created works. Under the impact of market economy, how to deal with economic and social benefits is an important topic in the design industry in the future

China is a developing country with a population of 1.2 billion and a civilization history of 6000 years. It has made remarkable achievements since the reform and opening up. With the sustainable development of economy and the substantial improvement of people's living standards, modern design in China is on the rise

80 years later, industrial design developed rapidly in China without blindly knocking and touching industrial design during inspection. Before the 1980s, only the Central Academy of Arts and crafts and Wuxi Institute of light industry set up industrial design majors. In recent years, dozens of universities have opened design majors, but there is a large gap compared with developed countries due to the lack of teachers, poor school running conditions, low school running efficiency, low teaching quality and weak scientific research. "

take the light industry system as an example: there are more than 10 million employees, 44 major industries, and more than 70000 factories, but there are only more than 6000 designers, with an average of 1 designer in 11 factories. Almost 12000 large and medium-sized enterprises and more than 18 million township enterprises have no design departments, and there is a shortage of designers. According to incomplete statistics, there are 126 automobile factories, 600 refitting factories, more than 300 special vehicle factories, more than 2000 parts factories and 37 motorcycle factories in China. Because the vast majority of automobile factories are small in scale, have poor technical strength, and have no model design and research department, they have to imitate and adopt foreign models, and even import molds. In the last few years of the 1980s, a total of 1million cars were imported at a cost of $13billion. Due to poor packaging, China loses about 10billion yuan every year. At present, there are about 40000 interior decoration enterprises in China. Due to the lack of technology and design strength, the decoration quality is poor. 50% of the projects of 1500 foreign-related hotels are contracted by foreign businessmen, and a large amount of capital outflows. The situation of "first-class raw materials, second-class packaging, third-class prices" of a large number of light industrial products and the phenomenon of plagiarism and imitation have not been fundamentally solved. All this has caused immeasurable losses to China's economic construction. The incompatibility between design education and economic development can no longer be continued. Therefore, it is imperative to speed up the construction and reform of design discipline and build a design teaching system with Chinese characteristics

Second, the current situation and problems of design education in China

unlike art education, design education in China is not mature. In the 1960s, there were only two colleges and universities, which were originally set up only in art and light industry colleges. Now comprehensive universities, engineering and normal colleges have also opened design majors, and technical secondary schools and adult education have sprung up. Several major disciplines of modern design have been established in China. Except for the doctoral level, the design discipline is complete with masters, undergraduate courses and junior colleges

After liberation, especially since the reform and opening up, China's design education has made great progress, with a large number of talents and outstanding achievements, which has made great contributions to the construction of two civilizations in China

due to the short history of modern design education in China, there is still a certain gap compared with the international advanced water. Let's talk about our personal views on the existing problems

1, the educational ideas and methods are old

at present, there are still common problems in China's design education, such as more and more majors, too narrow division of majors, too clear boundaries of majors, lack of intersection, and high comprehensive strength of first metal. The teaching methods are indoctrinated and paternalistic, which are taught by teachers and listened to by students, and teachers who mainly teach skills lead apprentices. They lack heuristics, dialogue and discussion, and neglect to cultivate students' ability to find, analyze and solve problems and self-study ability

2. The training goal is not clear,

the goal of China's higher education is to cultivate builders and successors of the socialist cause with all-round development of morality, intelligence and physique, "Three Orientations" and "Four Haves". Undoubtedly, the goal of design education is to cultivate all kinds of senior design professionals with all-round moral, intellectual and physical development. Universities cultivate engineers, which was a model of learning from the Soviet Union in the 1950s. Throughout the world, we have not seen a school that can cultivate senior design talents in four years. Generally speaking, in developed countries, such as the home appliance industry, you must be engaged in design practice in the enterprise design department for at least 5 years after graduation from university. In the automotive industry, it takes more than 10 years to independently engage in the design work of this major, and it takes 10 to 20 years to have a considerable level. Because a lot of knowledge, technology, ability and quality can only be learned in social practice. It is wrong to be afraid that if the training objectives are not high, it is not a university, and the level is not high. At present, the specialty setting and specialty coverage in design teaching are large and narrow, the knowledge is aging, the methods are obsolete, and the goals are too high or unclear, which directly affects the curriculum system, teaching content, methods and teaching quality. Therefore, we must correctly determine the training objectives of all kinds of majors at all levels according to the general objectives of national education and the actual situation of the majors, starting from the national conditions

at present, the training objectives of domestic design majors can be said to be mostly

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